HTML & CSS, a Web Pages and Apps Creation Technologies
HTML and CSS are the key technologies for creating web pages and web apps along with scripting and graphics.
HTML is a standard markup language for describing web pages’ structure. The elements of HTML are represented by tags that label such pieces of content as “paragraph”, “heading”, “table”, “list” etc. Web browsers don’t display HTML tags but use them to determine how to display the HTML document.
HTML enables developers to perform various operations on the websites:
- publish various online documents that contain texts, headings, lists, table, and photos;
- include sound and video clips, spreadsheets, and other applications straight into web documents;
- get online information clicking on buttons of hypertext links;
- design a variety of forms for performing transactions with various remote services when ordering products, making reservations, searching for information etc.
CSS is the language that describes the style of HTML documents and gives the presentation of Web pages, including fonts, layouts, and colors. It describes how HTML elements will be displayed on the screen. CSS can control the layout of multiple pages at once and saves a lot of work.
There are 3 ways to add CSS to HTML elements:
- Inline – to apply a unique style attribute to an HTML element
- Internal – to define a style for an HTML page in the <head> section using a <style> element
- External – when an external CSS file is used to determine a style for multiple HTML pages and a link to external style sheet is added in the <head> section of the HTML page
Using CSS, developers can adopt the presentation to various types of devices, for example, small screens, large screens, and printers. CSS can be used not only with HTML but also with any markup language that is based on XML. The separation of structure (HTML) from presentation (CSS) makes it easier to create sites, to share style sheets across multiple pages, and adapt pages to different environments.