MongoDB, an Open Source Cross-Platform Document-Oriented Database
MongoDB is an open source cross-platform document-oriented database written in C++, currently ranked fifth among 330 existing database management systems.
Classified as a NoSQL database, MongoDB differs from relational databases because it stores data in flexible JSON format like documents as opposite to tables. All data about the same object are located in the same document. Documents can be simple and complex alike and fields can vary from document to document. There is no need to define the structure of the document in the MongoDB because all documents in the system are self-describing. New fields can be added to a document without updating the central system catalog. Developers can add new features as they work on a project and MongoDB will store the updated objects so there is no need to re-design the schema from scratch.
The database makes it possible to store data of any structure making MongoDB a good choice for projects with large amounts of unstructured data. Data structure can be changed over time and MongoDB can be scaled within and across data centers without changing the application.
MongoDB has the following key features:
- BSON/JSON format
- Dynamic queries
- Native replication
- Load balancing
- Capped collections
- Real-time aggregation
- File storage
- Data duplication
- High availability
Being innately schemaless in structure, the database allows users to store huge amounts of unstructured data such as videos, emails, social media posts, etc. and perform complex operations on it. Taking into account that about 85% of any corporate data are typically unstructured, MongoDB covers a lot of ground. Besides, as all data about an object are stored in one document that can be easily accessed and analyzed.
Having flexible storage architecture, MongoDB allows mixing and matching multiple storage engines within the same deployment and can automatically manage data movement with native replication. In this way, it significantly reduces development and operational complexity to meet needs of different applications.